The self-driving car has captured our imagination.
Experimentation with the technology has been around for decades, but recent advances and particularly the advent of the Google Self-Driving Car in the past few years have pushed the technology to the front of public awareness. In 2011, Nevada was the first state to pass a law permitting autonomous cars on roadways. Florida, California and Michigan have since followed suit. The United Kingdom recently did the same.
Locally, former Madison Mayor Dave Cieslewicz opined that “driverless cars will change everything” (not for the better if you’re a cab driver or a UPS guy), saying the city needs to start planning for a future that doesn’t include human drivers. He asks why we should spend public money on 1,200 parking stalls downtown for the Judge Doyle Square project when eventually no one will need to park cars away from home.
Perhaps all of that will happen someday, but visions of being able to step into a driverless car outside your front door to get to work while spending the whole time on your phone are still a ways off, says Teresa Adams, a UW-Madison professor of civil and environmental engineering.
She recently finished a three-year stint on a U.S. Department of Transportation committee that advises the secretary of transportation on “intelligent transportation systems,” a broad field of inquiry that includes driverless cars.
In a recent interview, Adams explained that limitations of the radar and lidar (light-sensing radar) systems on these cars will make navigating in high-congestion and less-regulated areas (think crowded parking lots) a high bar for autonomous cars to clear — at least for the near future.
But that’s not to say that big changes aren’t on the way soon behind the wheel. In particular, Adams said car-to-car communication safety features are probably going to arrive in less than a decade and will likely have a major impact.
“The bottom line is that we’re at a real turning point in how we’re going to relate to our vehicles and how our vehicles are going to provide for us,” she said. “We just have the technology now.”
The Capital Times: So, are driverless cars coming to our driveways, and if so, how soon?
Teresa Adams: I think that technology is coming and will likely be in our vehicles. It’s hard to say when, because the cost of the technology is still really very high. I think that when we do see it, it’s going to be more on highway routes, where engaging in the traffic is a little more controlled.
So, in places where there are fewer variables?
Exactly. If you’re doing a lot of weaving or you’re trying to get around an incident site or something like that, the cars just aren’t smart enough yet. They’re just not going to replace the human — not yet anyway. So when we talk about when these cars will be in Madison, if you’re thinking about in our communities, it’s not going to happen for a while. But if you’re thinking, say, around the Beltline, it could be.
So you see this being used most likely on roads dedicated to driverless cars?
Or lanes that are dedicated to it, so that all the cars are behaving nicely, playing nicely.
Generally speaking, how does the technology work?
These cars have radar and lidar sensing what’s around you and how close it is and what the terrain is. So it’s the vehicle sensing its surroundings and then, of course, it has a path. Somebody’s going to have to tell it where to go, just like GPS. And then from there, it has to know properties of the highway, turning restrictions, speed limits and things like that that are on databases.
Would there be special infrastructural needs for driverless cars?
If we ever want to implement something like this, we have to be careful and make sure that the striping on the roads is really in good shape because these things are going to depend on that. It will be sensing to stay in its lane, so it’s got to know where its lane is.
Would this be harder to do then, in cities like Madison that often have snow on the roads?
That could very well be a problem. Another potential problem is where the sensors are mounted. In the past some of them have been mounted on the outside of the vehicles, but we know they can get gunked up. So now we put them on the inside of the vehicles where it’s protected a little bit more, but it’s still not perfect. So, that’s a good point. All the demonstrations I’ve seen have been in good weather.
In the nearer future then, what kinds of technological changes do you see on the horizon?
The other model is the connected vehicle model, where the cars are communicating with other cars. It’s usually still the driver doing the driving, it’s just that the connected vehicle part is providing a lot of enhanced safety. So, telling you when there’s an imminent collision, if you’re going too fast and you’re going to slam into somebody in front of you. We have a lot of technology similar to that — adaptive cruise control — right now, but that’s not being done by communicating with a vehicle, that’s our own vehicle sensing what’s in front of it. This would be where the cars would talk to other cars.
Do you think the government is likely to require this technology in cars at some point?
I think the safety benefits are being proven — the number of crashes that could be prevented if we had these devices where the communications are a lot faster than a human can think. I actually got a chance to sit and drive in one of these vehicles and experience some of the interfaces. As soon as you put on your blinker with your intention to change a lane, another vehicle is communicating, ‘Hey, I’m here.’ The difference is then in how the auto manufacturers will have the cars communicate that information to the driver.
So cars will be talking to drivers?
I’ve seen ones where a row of lights flashes across the windshield, which would tell you you’d better stop. I’ve seen ones where, to prevent a lane change collision, the driver’s seat would vibrate on one side. I haven’t seen ones that talk to you. It’s quicker, more intuitive.
How soon will we see this technology, do you think?
I have talked to people who say it could be within five to seven years. Even the next car you buy is going to be really different, and it’s just going to keep going.