The Republican-controlled state Assembly voted 52-46 to pass the state budget early Thursday morning more than 12 hours after debate began, sending the $73 billion two-year spending plan to Gov. Scott Walker. Walker can use his powerful veto authority to edit or remove items before he signs it into law.

Here are some ways the budget could affect Wisconsin residents:

SCHOOLS

— Public school funding: It won't be cut by $127 million as Walker proposed, but there won't be much more money. Funding would be flat the first year of the budget and go up by about $69 million in the second year, but schools aren't being given the authority to increase spending. That means if a district does get more aid, it will have to divert it to lowering property taxes unless voters approve a special referendum.

— Vouchers: More students who meet income qualifications would be able to attend private voucher schools because the current 1,000-student statewide enrollment cap changes to no more than 1 percent of a district's total students. That would increase 1 percentage point a year for 10 years until there is no cap. Money to pay for voucher students would come out of public school aid. Also, students with disabilities who are denied open enrollment in another public school district would be able to use a voucher for private schools.

— Ratings: A new five-star system would have no sanctions for poor performers. Federal law currently requires schools to take the same standardized test, but Wisconsin would seek a waiver to allow for schools to choose between three and five standardized tests to measure performance.

— Civics test: Starting in the 2016 school year, high school students would have to correctly answer at least 60 of the 100 questions on a civics exam before graduation. They could retake the test until they pass.

— Sports: Home-schooled students would be able to play sports and participate in extracurricular activities at their local public school.

— Milwaukee schools: The worst-performing Milwaukee Public Schools could be converted into independent charter or private voucher schools under control of a commissioner appointed by the county executive.

TRANSPORTATION

— State would borrow $850 million for road projects, down from Walker's $1.3 billion proposal. That would mean delays in major highway projects and resurfacing and reconstruction work.

TAXES

— Several changes are in the offing, including increasing the standard deduction for married couples filing jointly by $550, delaying the full phase-in of an income tax credit benefiting manufacturers and farmers, reducing the alternative minimum tax, allowing teachers to deduct up to $250 a year for classroom expenses and reducing taxes on hard cider. Property taxes would be held basically flat, and there are no increases in sales or income taxes.

PREVAILING WAGE

— The law that sets a minimum salary for construction workers on public projects like road building and schools would be repealed for local governments but remain for state projects.

LONG-TERM CARE

— Family Care and IRIS programs that strive to keep elderly people and those with disabilities out of nursing homes could be reshaped to allow for-profit managed care organizations to compete with networks of nonprofit groups that currently provide long-term care and ordinary medical care.

DRUG TESTS

— Recipients of public aid programs like food stamps and unemployment benefits would have to undergo initial screenings for drug use and could be subjected to drug tests later.

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

— The university system's budget would be cut by $250 million and make it easier to fire tenured faculty. Also, faculty would have less of a role in making decisions. In-state tuition would be frozen over the next two years.

NATURAL RESOURCES

— Fees for Wisconsin state parks would go up by $3 for annual admission and by $1 for daily admission. Camping fees for residents would increase $3 to $5 per night depending on a site's popularity; out-of-staters would pay an extra $5 to $8. The cost of an annual trail pass would go up $5.

— There could be more places to backpack, ski or snowshoe. The budget committee authorized the state's stewardship program to borrow $9 million per year for land acquisition. That's down dramatically from $19.3 million next year and $22.2 million in each of the following fiscal years through 2020, however.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

— Republicans eliminated Walker's plan to provide $55 million in Wisconsin Economic Development Corp. grants to regional groups for loans to businesses after a series of audits found WEDC has failed to track past-due loans, failed to follow state contract law and hasn't demanded proof from grant and loan recipients that they've created jobs.

PRISONS

— Prison towers would stand empty during the night, as 60 third-shift tower guard positions across 10 prisons would be eliminated, saving nearly $6 million. Those employees would be moved into other vacancies.

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